You are currently browsing the monthly archive for November 2014.

The Beşparmak Dağları, known as “Latmos” in antiquity, is one of the most fascinating and archaeologically richest regions in western Turkey. As early as prehistoric times the Latmos was already revered as a sacred mountain in Anatolia. Upon its peak the Old Anatolian weather god together with a local mountain deity were worshipped. The mountain peak was the centre of weather and fertility rituals. Despite socio-cultural changes that transformed religious concepts, the cultic tradition there continued into Ottoman times.
The beauty of the rock landscape and the cultural monuments that it inspired are now greatly endangered by increased stone quarrying in the area. For several decades feldspar, a rock-forming mineral used for the production of ceramics, glass and sanitary installations world-wide, has been quarried in the Beşparmak. This exploitation is causing the drastic metamorphosis of the Latmos from a sacred mountain into a source for bathroom installations! Tax exemptions and lax mining regulations, especially in the past few years, have enabled quarrying feldspar to expand dramatically, so that sites are threatened of the most important group of archaeological monuments on the Latmos: the prehistoric rock paintings.
Discovered in 1994 by the Berlin archaeologist Dr. Anneliese Peschlow-Bindokat, these rock paintings, dating to the 6th and 5th millennia B.C., belong to the recent extraordinary discoveries in prehistoric archaeology in Anatolia. The repertory of images focuses on family scenes and reflects the changes that occurred in society with the onset of sedentism. The themes and message conveyed by this imagery are unparalleled in the Mediterranean sphere and the Near East.
Please consider signing the Save Mount Latmos petition here.

Dr Tim Pestell holding the 3,500 year-old Bronze Age dirk that was found in Norfolk a decade ago
Image credit Steve Adams

Trevor Heaton, writing for EDP24, reports on the spectacular Norfolk treasure that has been unveiled after years of being used as a doorstop –

The 3,500-year-old Rudham Dirk, a ceremonial Middle Bronze Age dagger, was first ploughed up near East Rudham more than a decade ago. But the landowner didn’t realise what it was and was using it to prop open his office door. And the bronze treasure even came close to being thrown in a skip, but luckily archaeologists identified it in time. Now the dirk has been bought for Norfolk for close to £41,000 and is now on display in Norwich Castle Museum.

The 1.9kg (4lb) dirk is made from bronze, which is nine-tenths copper and one-tenth tin. The nearest source for the copper is Wales, while the tin may have come from Cornwall. Straightened out, it would be 68cm long, slightly shorter than the Oxborough example [a similar dirk now in the British Museum]. It may even have been made in the same workshop, maybe even by the same craftsperson.

More here.


In Reflection
Three stones within the setting of The Nine Stones (Altarnun) stone circle in Cornwall culminating with its iconic tri-stone
Roy Goutté
Today marks our third birthday. A big thank you to all our contributors, readers and followers for your interest, input and encouragement.
A pre-Columbian Aztec manuscript, probably written near Puebla, Mexico at the end of the fifteenth century
Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
Mary-Ann Russon, writing for the International Business Times, reports on the Vatican Library’s project to make 4,000 ancient manuscripts available online for free –
The Vatican Apostolic Library is now digitising its valuable ancient religious manuscripts and putting them online via its website, available for the public to view for free, as well as turning to crowdfunding to help it complete its work. The Vatican Library was founded in 1451 AD and holds over 80,000 manuscripts, prints, drawings, plates and incunabula (books printed prior to 1500 AD) written throughout history by people of different faiths from across the world.
The library also includes letters from important historical figures, drawings and notes by artists and scientists such as Michelangelo and Galileo, as well as treaties from all eras in history. The ancient documents are now being preserved under the DigitaVaticana programme using FITS, the format developed by Nasa to store images, astronomical, and astrophysical data, and until now, only 500 manuscripts and 600 incunabula were available to view on the Vatican Library website. Now, the Vatican has teamed up with Japanese firm NTT Data to digitise a further 3,000 manuscripts by 2018.
More here.

The Great Mosque of Samarra, Iraq
Oleg Nikishin/Getty Images

Kieron Monks, for CNN, reports on the damage and destruction of nineteen heritage sites you’ll now never see. The first –

Once the largest mosque in the world, built in the 9th century on the Tigris River north of Baghdad. The mosque is famous for the Malwiya Tower, a 52-meter minaret with spiralling ramps for worshipers to climb. Among Iraq’s most important sites, it even featured on banknotes. The site was bombed in 2005, in an insurgent attack on a NATO position, destroying the top of the minaret and surrounding walls.

See and read about the other eighteen sites here.


One of the Stonehenge trilithons (right) still showing its tenon (top)
The Heritage Trust
Another attempt is to be made next year to solve the mystery of how the largest stones used to build Stonehenge were moved reports BBC News Witshire
In 1996, a BBC TV programme aimed to find out how the stones for the largest trilithon were put into place, and how the lintel was placed on top. Since then the concrete replicas have remained untouched and forgotten about at an army base on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. They have now been rediscovered and the experiment will be repeated.
Archaeologist Julian Richards is teaming up with farmer Tim Daw to see if modern techniques are any more efficient.
More here.

In the Shadow of the Hill: The Rough Tor Triangle. A totally speculative article but with a hint of truth to it?

Text and images © Roy Goutté

Rough Tor as seen from Middle-Moor cross on Bodmin Moor’s North-West perimeter

Nestling neatly in the shadow of Rough Tor lies the wonderfully rustic stone circle of Fernacre. Just 2km to the west of it is the equally rustic Stannon circle and 800m to the south east of that a third in this triangle of large Cornish circles…Louden. All three are believed to have been built in the Late-Neolithic although a lack of dating evidence in Cornish circles is a problem.

But that is not the only triangular thing about these three circles built on the north-west fringe of Bodmin Moor in Cornwall, for within their settings they all feature a single large triangular granite upright. It is these iconic Cornish tri-stones and their possible meaning and connection to Rough Tor that I would like to concentrate on in this article and not so much about the circles themselves other than their basic details and possibly why they were erected where they are.

Fernacre circle has so much in common with the other two circles that it doesn’t take much figuring out that the three are likely to be contemporary with each other and possibly erected by the same people because they are so close together. All are very large by Cornish standards but are surprisingly made up of a large number of small stones. Stannon has around 70 laid out in an irregular ring but originally there may have been as many as 82+. Fernacre also has a large number of stones in its setting, Louden fewer, yet the three circles are the largest in Cornwall along with the Stripple Stones henge circle at the base of Hawk’s Tor and could have been amongst the first to be built. All three are irregular in shape and may have been laid out by eye instead of using a central peg and rope, rather like children marking out a demarcation area for a football pitch in the park with jackets and jumpers!

Unfortunately, Stannon circle lies immediately to the south of a huge china clay works, which, to my mind, destroys much of the magical feel associated with moorland circles we are used to seeing in an open landscape. I wonder if in these more enlightened times permission for this type of activity would still be allowed adjacent to a Scheduled Monument?

Stannon circle looking north-east toward the huge china clay works

All three circles have been labelled as ‘ceremonial’ in certain quarters, but I’m not quite sure what that is based on but may well be true. In my mind I visualise ceremonial circles as being not only large in size, but displaying magnificent uprights within their settings with a true look of grandeur. But this is not the case here as it almost seems that any size stones the builders could get their hands on were used in their construction and in this instance, quite small. It suggests to me that each circle was just one part of a much larger blueprint, so individual grandeur and precision was not required and their use different to other stand-alone circles…whatever that may have been!

Fernacre circle sits in a magnificent bowled landscape. Brown Willy to its east, Garrow Tor to the south, Louden Hill to the west-north-west and the daddy of them all and we believe most revered, Rough Tor to its north.

Aside from its own feature tri-stone it has around fifty-five stones remaining out of what some believe was around as many as ninety which indicates the smallness of many of them! It’s almost like the stones just marked out a temporary demarcation area rather than a permanent and functional structure to be admired. It is this side of things I find really odd.

Although it is just as irregular in its own diameter as Stannon circle, Fernacre is slightly larger being forty-six by forty-four metres, so again, somewhat slightly elliptical in plan.

A section through Fernacre circle looking toward the south-west. Louden circle is away to the top right on the left-hand side of the track. Note the selection of small stones for such a large circle and common in all three

It does appear that stone circles are located within the landscape in relation to other foci with sacred or spiritual significance, not all of which are necessarily visible today. The spacing of individual circles throughout the landscape has also been thought by some to represent a tribal gathering point for specific social groups and Fernacre, being set as it is within a landscape rich in contemporary ritual monuments, settlements and field patterns, demonstrates the complex integration of ritual practice with domestic and agricultural organisation of the landscape during the later Neolithic and Bronze Ages. (Access to Monuments. Cornish Heritage).

Louden circle, in elevation terms, is the highest of the three with Fernacre circle seen down from it to the north-east. It has an irregular diameter of between forty-five and forty-three metres and although now reduced in numbers, it probably had up to 40 stones in its original setting. Of the three, Louden circle is the least obvious to the eye due to recumbent and buried stones, but fortunately it still has its iconic tri-stone in place as a guide to finding it. However, a clearance of the turf now enveloping the fallen stones would be of benefit to finding it as PastScape list it as being on Louden Hill…which it isn’t!

Rough Tor Triangle 4 (2)

Louden circle. Less stones than both Stannon and Fernacre circles, but equally small ones

Let us turn our attention now to the iconic singular large tri-stones within the settings of these three circles and ask the usual questions…what is their meaning or purpose?

It was only when I was in Louden circle recently and taking a photograph of the tri-stone with Rough Tor in the background, that it suddenly dawned on me that I was seeing something close to a double take! I then ventured across to Stannon circle to take a similar photograph and to my amazement witnessed the same and wondered if the builders had purposely made an attempt at replicating the image of Rough Tor as best they could within their ring settings by erecting tri-stones which can be found amongst the clitter masses on the various tors and hills in the area. The same applied at Fernacre and it left me thinking!


Rough Tor as seen from the far side of the Louden circle and tri-stone


The Louden tri-stone as viewed from inside its circle…an attempt at replicating Rough Tor?


The iconic tri-stone at Stannon circle with the equally iconic Rough Tor in the background. Note the ‘notch’ in Rough Tor’s peak as seen from the circle

Stannon’s tri-stone as seen from inside the circle. Note the notch in the peak. Was it selected in an attempt at replicating the notch in Rough Tor’s?


The Fernacre tri-stone


Fernacre’s tri-stone with Rough Tor looming large in the background

The top photo is a natural tri-stone on Treswallock Downs and the lower the same on Leskernick Hill

So, we have three large irregular stone circles of similar size and with similar sized stones of all shapes and all with a prominent tri-stone in their ring settings and all in close proximity to each other.

It would be easy to suggest that if the people of their time revered or worshipped Rough Tor, then the tri-stones in each of the three circles may well have been seen as near images of their ‘God’ and revered during ceremonies carried out in the circles.

Let’s leave that thought for a moment though and look further into those tri-stones and consider where they are positioned within each circle as it could also tell a speculative but interesting tale.

Remarkably, the circle to the east (Fernacre) has its tri-stone positioned due east in its setting and the circle to the west (Stannon) has its tri-stone positioned due west in its setting. To complete the set, Louden, the southern-most circle, has its tri-stone due south in its setting. Why should all three circles have their individual tri-stones on the side of the triangle they themselves form in the landscape? Draw a direct line between those three circles and note that they form a scalene triangle (no equal sides) which ‘by ‘chance?’ just happens to be a mirror image of Rough Tor!

Copied directly off an OS map for accuracy, the triangle formed by the three circles produces a mirror image of Rough Tor in profile!

So, is this then the ‘finished product’ of the blueprint I referred to earlier and not the individual circles themselves? Are the circles just the demarcation points where boundaries joined up and possibly ritualistic ceremonies took place in…or just pure speculation on my part? In the photocopy above it can be seen quite clearly that the greater majority of solid black circles, rings and enclosure boundaries in the area (cairns, hut circles and field systems) are within the triangle. Black denotes Prehistoric, red, Medieval or Post-Medieval. Did our prehistoric ancestors not only live, work and get buried within sight of Rough Tor, but also within its mirrored image?

Furthermore, are there comparisons elsewhere?


Dead soldiers in a trench, Hill of Cividale on the Italian Front
Photographer unidentified, November 1917. Hulton Getty Collection
What is Stonehenge?
What is Stonehenge? It is the roofless past;
Man’s ruinous myth; his uninterred adoring
Of the unknown in sunrise cold and red;
His quest of stars that arch his doomed exploring.
And what is Time but shadows that were cast
By these storm-sculptured stones while centuries fled?
The stones remain; their stillness can outlast
The skies of history hurrying overhead.
Siegfried Sassoon (1886-1967) World War I poet.
The Soldiers at Stonehenge exhibition (which we featured earlier here) opened yesterday at the Stonehenge Visitor Centre with this early black and white footage of World War I soldiers beamed onto the Monument’s stones. While no-one can deny that the footage is dramatic, is this really the way to commemorate those who fell in the Great War or to treat one of the world’s most iconic ancient monuments?
It’s not the first time that an ancient monument has been used as an advertising board; in the last few years both the Cerne Abbas Giant and the Uffington White Horse have been used in advertising stunts. More recently, we highlighted how Morrisons, the UK supermarket chain, beamed a baguette advert onto the Angel of the North sculpture by Antony Gormley (the supermarket later apologised after anger grew over its decision to use the sculpture as a billboard).
We can’t help thinking that English Heritage’s decision to beam footage of World War I soldiers is motivated more towards attracting people to its current Soldiers at Stonehenge exhibition than actually paying homage to those men and women who never returned to their homelands from that terrible conflict on foreign soil.
Worrying too is that this use of ancient monuments and works of art may set a dangerous trend where a, ‘If attracts the punters let’s go for it.’ mind-set becomes acceptable. A mind-set that stands in stark contrast to the gentle appeal by the people of Twyford to save their Town Hall (see below) and its associations with World War I.


The building was constructed in 1853 as a Wesleyan Chapel and served as such until the end of WWI. During the turn of the century there was already a Twyford Men’s Club located in Twyford and when the Vicar Rev. R.W.H. Acworth arrived at the church in 1903, he had considerable impact on the club and as Club President he was instrumental in moving the club into the Weslyan Chapel. At this time the chapel had been empty for a few years when it was deserted by the Wesleyan congregation who had moved to Reading on the death of a previous vicar. As a result the Rev. Acworth bought the chapel, and rented it to the Men’s Club at the princely sum of £1 per month. The hall accommodated a full size billiard table, and a reading room which was provided with daily newspapers, and periodicals. Tea, coffee and other non-alcoholic drinks were available for a small charge. The hall was open six evenings a week from 7pm to 10pm and three times per week gymnastic exercise classes were held.

With the outbreak of WWI the men of Twyford were quick to respond to the call to arms. During the war 276 men enlisted from a total population of 1,200 (men women and children.) according to the 1911 census. Of these 34 young men made the ultimate sacrifice. One of the volunteers became known as the Ace of Twyford due to his record of 16 aerial victories being awarded the DFC and Bar. Another was lost presumed dead on a submarine; an unusual occurrence in those days.

In 1919 the Vicar Rev. Acworth was again active in supporting the men of Twyford by bequeathing the Chapel to the Men of Twyford in recognition of their contribution to the war effort.


Since 1919 the building has served as a club dedicated to playing billiards and snooker and other social activities continued as before. Currently the club is rather unique in that members pay an annual fee which entitles them to their own key so that they have access 24/7. In addition it is now open to male and female members and is available to hire by local societies such as drama and musical groups for rehearsals and practice.

Graham C. Cook M.Sc. Trustee.

In the year 2019 we intend to celebrate the 100 years, since it was bequeathed, by having the hall rededicated by the local vicar and also re-named The Twyford Memorial Hall. This name would reflect the memorial contents of the hall; ie the commemorative tablet mentioned above plus an engraved porcelain tile which expresses thanks to God for the service by the men of Twyford.

If you are able to help with the refurbishment and rededication of The Twyford Memorial Hall please contact us at – Twitter: @helpourhall

Or Tel: 0118 969 1668 Mob: 07785738034


Mother Goose and Grimm

A reminder to our American friends.

Don’t forget that your daylight saving time ends tomorrow, 2nd November, at 2am local time. Here in Britain the clocks went back last Sunday. Sad to say our Druid and Megalithic Clock Adjusters are still rearranging some of our larger stone circles. Meanwhile, the debate intensifies as to whether or not to stay on British Summer Time all year-round or to continue being plunged into darkness at around 5pm for the next few months.



November 2014
Follow The Heritage Trust on
%d bloggers like this: